By Jay Morse & Heidi Radunovich, PhDCreative Commons [Flickr, The Break-up, February 15, 2014]Is there a clear link between PTSD and relationship problems? Dr. Casey Taft, Principal Investigator at the National Center for PTSD, and colleagues reviewed the research findings related to PTSD and relationship problems .A total of 31 articles published between 1984 and 2009 were analyzed using meta-analysis. The primary research objective was to document the association between PTSD and 3 relationship factors including:Intimate relationship discord,Intimate partner physical aggression perpetration, andIntimate partner psychological aggression perpetration.Dr. Taft and his colleagues found that PTSD was related to all three of the above listed relationship factors. Some additional findings included:The military sample showed a stronger relationship between PTSD and relationship discord or physical aggression than the civilian sample.In cases of severe violence, there were greater associations between PTSD and relationship problems.The linkage between PTSD and relationship problems suggests that clinicians should consider relationship-based approaches to treatment for those military members that exhibit symptoms of PTSD. Not only can PTSD lead to relationship problems, the presence of relationship discord and aggression can lead to worsening of PTSD symptoms.For more information on PTSD and intimate partner relationship problems, consider attending the MFLN webinar series. Dr. Taft, Principal Investigator at the National Center for PTSD, will be presenting a webinar on the links between PTSD and Domestic Violence in Military Couples on May 28.References Taft, C.T., Watkins, L.E., Stafford, J., Street, A.E., & Monson, C. M. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate relationship problems: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(1), 22-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022196This post was written by Jay Morse & Heidi Radunovich, PhD, members of the MFLN Family Development (FD) team which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network FD concentration on our website, on Facebook, on Twitter, You Tube, and on LinkedIn.
By: David Lee Sexton, Jr.Pixabay[Yoga Zen by GDJ , 2017, CC0]Meet Adrienne BaggsAdrienne Baggs recently earned a Ph.D. in Counseling, but she prefers to help people process their emotions through yoga rather than dialogue. According to her website, Awaken through Rest: Restorative Yoga with Adrienne Baggs, Adrienne believes in the power of restorative yoga to offer an escape from the “mental quicksand” of everyday hassles. Her practice focuses on positioning the body in ways optimal for achieving parasympathetic dominance.According to Brooke (2010), restorative yoga utilizes simple yoga poses in conjunction with blankets, pillows, bolsters, and various other equipment to induce rest and stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system; this stimulation results in decreased blood pressure, which facilitates a variety of restorative effects on the body. Adrienne goes on to elaborate the benefits of restorative yoga, including the effect of mindful observance of one’s thoughts which allows individuals to process emotions and anxieties rather than suppressing them.Restorative Yoga to Heal Trauma: Overcoming Memories Stored in the BodyWhile many approaches to treating the menace that is PTSD focus on managing cognition, or the thoughts that may keep an individual trapped in a past trauma he or she survived, Adrienne feels that this approach is often not enough. She insightfully indicates that many memories associated with trauma may be stored not only in the mind but in the body as well. The stress response is a fickle function within the body. It is not unrealistic to imagine seemingly harmless stimuli triggering a memory of a past traumatic event and returning the body to the same physical state it required in that moment for survival. In addition, many may suffer physical and emotional trauma so severe that they are unable to participate active yoga practice.As a solution, restorative yoga offers these individuals power over their own bodies. Here, Adrienne describes three poses that aim to teach individuals to return their bodies to a state of “pre-stress”, which could prove invaluable in managing the effects of PTSD that often leave individuals feeling that they are helpless to control their own bodies.Why Not Just Take a Nap?In a video posted to Awaken through Rest’s Facebook page, Adrienne addresses a question that she encounters fairly often in her tutelage of restorative yoga students: why do I feel irritable during restorative yoga practice? Of course, the idea is that the practice of restorative yoga is supposed to induce feelings of rest and relaxation, or a “blissed out state”. Adrienne explains that this is simply not the goal of restorative yoga. The practice is not intended to allow individuals to reach that “blissed out state” during a session; rather, the goal is to exercise and train the “muscle of rest” in order for it to grow stronger.Adrienne presents a useful simile comparing restorative yoga and weightlifting. Restorative yoga is like weightlifting; it takes practice to really make progress. One will not jump into the practice of weightlifting and immediately feel stronger. Similarly, one should not expect to be able to jump into restorative yoga and immediately feel relaxed. It takes time to train not only our physical muscles but our “muscles of rest” as well. In conclusion, one can think of restorative yoga as a practice that allows us to gradually become more adept at finding inner peace and relaxation between the hustle and bustle of our daily lives. While perhaps not as immediately gratifying as what many might envision restorative yoga as (*cough* adult naptime *cough*), the long-term benefits and the promise of finding a place of inner peace to retreat to when overwhelmed cannot be denied.Want to Learn More?Take a look at our archived webinars, Wellness Strategies, Burnout Prevention, and Mindfulness: Part 2. During these presentations, Dr. Adrienne Baggs and Dr. Isabel Thompson share other strategies for engaging in self-care and maintaining mental and physical well-being. In particular, Dr. Baggs discusses the practice and benefits of mindfulness, or being aware of one’s own thoughts, in each fleeting moment without judgment.She cites Gertrude Stein’s famous quote, “a rose is a rose is a rose”. While open to interpretation, this is a lesson we can all stand to learn: regardless of our current mental or emotional state and personal judgments, everything is exactly as it seems. When all is said and done, this is perhaps the goal of restorative yoga: allowing the body to enter a state of rest and restoration uninhibited by the commotion of the mind.ReferencesBags, A. (2018). Awaken Through Rest: Restorative Yoga with Adrienne Baggs. Retrieved from http://adriennebaggs.com/Brooke, C. (May, 2010). Restorative yoga: The art (and science) of slowing down. Alive: Canada’s Natural Health and Wellness Magazine, 331, 54-55.
It was a big week in Vegas with tons of exciting gear and software announcements. Make sure you didn’t miss anything with this handy NAB 2015 roundup.Unfortunately, NAB 2015 has come to a close. So, while all the major camera companies are taking down their booths, we thought it might be helpful to spotlight the most important announcements with this NAB 2015 roundup. Let’s begin!NAB 2015 Roundup: Camera Announcements1. Blackmagic URSA MiniAs one of the biggest announcements of NAB 2015, the Blackmagic URSA Mini is a welcomed addition to Blackmagic’s ever-growing line of cameras. The URSA packs 15 stops of dynamic range into a super 35mm sensor. The camera comes with a flip out touch screen and can shoot up to 4.6K with optional global or rolling shutter. Definitely a camera to consider buying after we see some test footage.Price: $3,000-$5,000Availability: July 20152. Blackmagic Micro Cinema CameraTo appeal to the drone lovers of the world, Blackmagic also unveiled the Blackmagic Micro Cinema Camera. It’s specially designed to be small in size and weight. With 13 stops of dynamic range and a 16mm sensor, the camera looks to bring cinematic quality video to drone videos very soon. The camera can also be controlled remotely.Price: $1,295Availability: July 20153. Panasonic DVX200With a sleek carbon fiber design, the DVX200 is the Cadillac of camcorders. Designed with professionals in mind, this 4K camcorder has built-in ND filters, iris rings, and 2 XLR audio ports. Unfortunately, the camera has a fixed lens, but with a 13X zoom, the DVX200 has almost every desirable focal length covered. No word on the release date, but if you like having all of your equipment in one place, the DVX200 might be the camera for you.Price: $5,000Availability: Fall of 20154. Canon C300 Mark IIThe long-anticipated C300 Mark II was announced at NAB 2015 and the specs are incredible. With 15 stops of dynamic range and up to 120fps recording, this 4K camera is going to be amazing. The only problem is the price point. With a base model price tag of $16,000, the C300 is quite the financial commitment.Price: $16,000Availability: September 20155. JVC’s LS300 Price DropJVC’s highly-adaptable 4K camcorder, the LS300, has received a price drop down to $4,000. This camera packs quite a punch with 2 XLR ports, SD card slots, and of course 4K video recording. While it may not have a sleek design like the DVX200, its specs are very comparable.Price: $4,000Availability: ImmediatelyNAB 2015 Roundup: Drone Announcements6. DJI Phantom 3Everybody’s favorite drone company announced their latest drone at NAB 2015, the DJI Phantom 3. The Phantom 3 comes in two flavors: Advanced and Professional. The only difference being that the Professional drone has a built-in 4K camera. Both drones can be controlled from up to 1.2 miles away.Price: $999-$1,359Availability: Late April 20157. Solo Smart DroneWith 2 computers built-in, the Solo Smart Drone is claiming to be the first “smart” drone in the world. The drone, built for use with GoPro, has a few extremely advanced features, including the ability to move between a virtual zipline in the sky, orbit around a fixed point, and pull out to place your subject in the center of a large environment.Price: $999 – $1,400Availability: May8. Freefly ALTA DroneThe new Freefly ALTA is a revolutionary drone that allows users to mount the camera to the top or bottom of the drone as desired. The drone also features 6 blades instead of 4 for added stability. The Freefly ALTA can carry cameras that weigh up to 15lbs.Price: $8,495Availability: June 2015NAB 2015 Roundup: Accessory Announcements9. Freefly MIMICThe Freefly MIMIC is one of the most impressive products to come out of NAB 2015. Essentially, the MIMIC gives users the ability to control MOVI movements from a separate MIMIC Device. So one person can hold the MOVI device while the other controls the movement. If this device turns out to have low-latency, it could radically change the entire stabilization industry.Price: $495Availability: Beta Release April 201510. DJI Ronin-MAt half the weight and a fraction of the price, the DJI Ronin-M serves as a welcome alternative to the already awesome original Ronin. The Ronin-M is designed to work with small to medium size cameras, up to 8lbs. The entire rig can also be condensed to fit into most backpacks.Price: $2,000Availability: Pre-Order Only11. GoPro HEROCastGoPro is trying to target professional broadcasters with their latest HEROCast announcement. HEROCast is essentially a low-latency broadcasting device that an be attached to a GoPro for live-stream. GoPro states that the device is the smallest professional broadcast device in the world. However, for such a small device, the HEROCast boasts a pretty impressive price tag.Price: $7,500Availability: TBD12. SmallHD SidefinderSmallHD wowed crowds at NAB 2015 with their 502 + Sidewinder announcement. Essentially the combination is both a viewfinder and an external reference monitor. Users can either view the 502 reference monitor to monitor colors with extreme accuracy or attach the Sidefinder to make the combination an EVF. The combo can be easily attached to professional cameras like ARRI and RED via external accessories.Price: N/AAvailability: TBD13. Atomos Shogun Gets an Update and a Little BrotherEveryone’s favorite 4K monitor/recorder, the Atomos Shogun, will receive a new update. The Shogun is getting an anamorphic de-squeezing feature that should allow users to playback their anamorphic footage the way it was meant to be viewed. This is great news for Panasonic users, as the Panasonic GH4 has just recently received an anamorphic update. Users now have the option to record RAW Cinema DNG, ProRes, or DNxHR directly to their Shogun. Other minor updates include expanded RAW compatibility with Sony, Canon, Arri and AJA, Cinema 4K and 2K DCI support, and 3D LUTs on output and in recording.Atomos has also released a new version of the Shogun appropriately named the Shogun Bare Bones. The device has all of the features found in the Shogun, without any of the accessories found in the original version of the Shogun. This should be a great announcement for anyone looking to get all of the functionality of a Shogun without unwanted accessories to drive up the price.Price: $1,995Availability: May 201514. Blackmagic Video AssistBlackmagic has announced their first portable external monitor, the Blackmagic Video Assist. The monitor has has both HDMI and SDI inputs. The monitor has all of the essential features like scopes, histagrams, and focus peaking.Price: $495Availability: July 2015NAB 2015 Roundup: Software Announcements15. Adobe Updates the Creative CloudAdobe released a ton of new features for the Creative Cloud just in time for NAB 2015. There are many amazing features to talk about, but the most important is the inclusion of a new Lumetri color panel in Premiere Pro. The panel will allow users to color grade using a Lightroom-like interface.Price: Free with Creative Cloud SubscriptionAvailability: TBD16. Apple Updates FCPX, Motion, and CompressorApple’s update to their professional video applications mainly focused on the ability to create 3D objects directly in FCPX. Users can now make 3D text and basic objects in FCPX and adjust various parameters like lighting and texture. Motion also received a few updates to its 3D interface. You can read more on the announcement on our blog.Price: Free to FCPX usersAvailability: Immediately17. DaVinci Resolve 12 UpdatesDaVinci Resolve is due to get a big update with the unveil of DaVinci Resolve 12. Notable enhancements include an updated user interface, multi-cam editing, and enhanced color grading tools. What other features do you want to see in DaVinci Resolve? Let us hear about them in the comments below.Price: Free to DaVinci Resolve UsersAvailability: July 201518. Avid Announced a Free Version of Media ComposerNot to be outdone by Blackmagic, Avid announced a free version of Avid Media Composer. The software is designed to help people new to Avid understand how to use the fairly advanced software. Avid promises that the free version of Media Composer, named Media Composer First, is comparable to Premiere Pro and FCPX, with a few limiting featuresPrice: FreeAvailability: TBD19. Fusion is Coming to MacFusion, the high-end compositing software, is now coming to Mac. Last year, Blackmagic announced that the previously expensive software could be downloaded for free, which was great news for PC owners – but not-so-great for Mac users. We can expect to see Fusion for Mac available later this year.Price: FreeAvailability: Late Summer-Early Fall 201520. Sony Unveiled Catalyst Production SuiteIn a surprise announcement from Sony, we’re going to be seeing a series of new editing and file management software in the near future. Catalyst Browse, Edit, and Prepare will soon allow users to organize their video files and perform basic editing functions in a sleek new redesign. Sony Vegas users don’t panic, they aren’t killing Vegas – at least not yet. This software is meant to be an alternative. We’ll be interested to see how practical this software is once it hits the market. You can read more about Catalyst on Sony’s website.Price: Free-$199Availability: VariesWant to get more in-depth information about the gear announcements listed here? Check out a few of these overview posts:SmallHD Unveils a Pocket-Sized Monitor/Viewfinder HybridCanon C300 Mark II: 15 Stops of Dynamic Range and MorePhantom 3: DJI’s Latest Drone Takes FlightVideo Editors Rejoice: Adobe Unveils Creative Cloud NextDJI Releases the Ronin-M: lightweight and lower-pricedNAB 2015 Announcement: The Blackmagic URSA MiniThe Super16 RAW Blackmagic Micro Cinema Camera is Here!Blackmagic Announces DaVinci Resolve 12Avid Announces a Free Version of Media ComposerThe Freefly ALTA Drone: A New Way to FlyNAB 2015 Announcements: News You Might Have MissedPanasonic Unveils the DVX200: A Pro All-In-One CamcorderThe 3DR Solo Smart Drone: So Easy a Monkey Can Use ItWhat did you think about NAB 2015? Any gear that you’re particularly excited about? Please share in the comments below.
Great locations can make even the lowest budget production look like a million bucks. Here are three ways to land incredible locations without breaking the bank.Top image from University of British ColumbiaOne of the biggest giveaways of a low budget film are it’s mediocre locations. It’s not uncommon for filmmakers to resort to shooting in their homes, at a friends place, or at their office on off hours. While each of those scenarios may work some specific instances, more often than not they’ll only diminish the quality of your final product.Image from The Location GuideThere are exceptions to every rule. Lena Dunham shot much of her ultra low-budget feature (Tiny Furniture) in her Mom’s family home, and that certainly worked out for her. Then again, her Mom happened to have a beautiful house in New York that was suitable to the story that Lena was trying to tell. But what if your story calls for a location that you don’t have direct access to? Are you forced to re-write your script to accommodate these limitations? Definitely not.There are countless ways to score and secure really incredible film locations for little or money. You just need to think outside the box!These three tips are only a few of the options available to you when trying to increase your production value with perfect locations:1. Offer Product PlacementAn American icon. Also pictured: Superman. Image from IMDbI’m not usually a fan of product placement, especially when it’s particularly obvious. Though there’s a time and a place where it can definitely work to your advantage.Let’s assume you need to shoot a scene in a Tarantino-style diner but don’t know anyone that owns or works at one, so calling in a favour isn’t an option. Do you have to re-write that scene? Absolutely not. You just need to pick up the phone and start pounding the pavement. Call every single vintage looking diner that you can think of and explain that you want to shoot your amazing new film at their diner. Be honest with them, let them know that your budget is limited but you are more than willing to offer them a product placement (a cutaway to their signage would probably suffice) in exchange for shooting there. Also offer to sweeten the deal by giving them some cash as an honorarium, and buying your entire cast and crew lunch/dinner through them that day.No matter how great your pitch is, it’s more than likely that 9 out of 10 places you call will still say no. Stay persistent and be willing to put in the legwork, and eventually you’ll find someone who is open to the idea.2. Avoid Traditional Location WebsitesImage from The Location GuideThere are a lot of websites out there that will provide you with a list of home and business owners willing to rent out their locations to you. These services are great when you actually have some money to spend, as your process can move quite quickly when utilizing their search/booking tools. However, there’s one catch: most locations on these sites can be very costly.Anyone that owns a property and is looking to monetize it by renting it out to film productions is aware of the fact that they can make a killing under the right circumstances. Even an old, run down house can rent for many thousands of dollars a day to a film production, so the last thing you want to do is deal with home/business owners who are expecting full rates for their property.Instead, look for other ways to secure potential locations. For example, if you need a house, try searching on a website like Airbnb. You can search through thousands of different home listings and contact the owners directly about a rental. Keep in mind that for legal and insurance reasons you will still need to tell them that you plan on shooting on their property. Once again, it’s a numbers game. If you get in touch with enough people, eventually some will agree to accommodate your request.3. Look For Free Permit AreasImage from The Location GuideBelieve it or not, permits don’t always need to cost you an arm and a leg. While certain cities can be outrageously expensive to shoot in, some areas will cost little or nothing at all. In Los Angeles for instance, shooting just about anywhere is really expensive (this is to be expected, as it is the entertainment capital of the world), as both public and private locations are well aware of the financial opportunity for them to cash in on all of the production happening in the city.If you travel just outside of Los Angeles, permit costs are a lot more reasonable. When I shot my first short film in LA (about 2 years ago), I realized pretty quickly that I needed to leave LA county to get my permits. In the end, I locked down a couple of amazing exterior locations and was fully permitted for $0. I still needed to have proper insurance of course, but the fact that I was able to get such great locations for free really helped to offset the budget.Final ThoughtsImage from HBOWatchLocation, location, location. It’s cliche, and we’ve heard it a million times, but the truth is that location is everything. If you’re on a low budget production and don’t have a production designer on board, you need to rely on your locations to up your production value. Great location can really help sell the aesthetic and world that your film is set in. By thinking outside box and utilizing some of the tips on this list, you just might be able to score some really amazing shooting locations and up your production value tremendously.If you’re a filmmaker on a budget, check out the following links. You’ll find some very helpful tools and information.Free Location Fact Sheet for Film and Video ProductionsFree Location Release Form for Film and Video Productions5 Tips For Getting Great Film/Video Locations For FreeGot any location scouting/scoring tips for your fellow filmmakers? Share your knowledge in the comments below!
It’s been five years since Apple last updated Final Cut Pro 7. Let’s take a look at how video production and other NLEs have changed since.Five years ago, Apple released 7.0.3 — the final update to Final Cut Pro 7.That year, the BP Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and WikiLeaks dominated news headlines. Apple released the iPhone 4. Inception was the most talked about film, and independent videographers were all getting their hands on the Canon 7D.Even with all the advancements in camera technology over the past five years, there are still plenty of users editing on Final Cut Pro 7. I’ll admit it… even I still use FCP7 on an occasional project. I had absolutely mastered Final Cut Pro over the years, but with the release of FCPX I was left with a void. Since then, I have dabbled in most of the other NLEs, but I could just never get myself to fully breakaway from FCP7.Now that we are entering an era where most cell phones will shoot 4K footage, and 360 degree videos can be watched on YouTube and Facebook, it’s time to let FCP7 die. The software just can’t handle production needs anymore. Let’s take a look at some of the available options for video editors still caught in NLE limbo.Final Cut Pro XWhen FCPX was released, I was not alone in my hesitations to migrate. Thousands of users complained about the update. The original launch in 2011 made FCPX look like some terrible hybrid between iMovie and Final Cut Pro. It was a disaster. But now that we are years removed from the launch, where is FCPX now?Apple has already released 17 updates for FCPX. The biggest update (10.2) added 3D titles, updated color grading, made the program more compatible with plugins. It also added support for additional camera formats.There are more FCPX plugins available to users than ever before. Apple has made serious strides in making FCPX a great program, but the initial launch is still hurting it. Many users have never given a second thought to using FCPX, but now it’s turning into a very viable option.FCPX is available for $299.99 in the App Store for Mac users.Premiere Pro Creative CloudPremiere Pro CC has taken an absolutely dominant role in the NLE world. With the ease of integration with other Adobe software (like Photoshop and After Effects) and the Creative Cloud packaging, Premiere Pro CC has become the go-to NLE of choice for independent editors.Premiere Pro CC is set up to handle an incredible amount of codecs and formats. Today’s video editor is required to use a multitude of programs, and Premiere Pro is designed with that in mind. Not only is it easy to move media across all of Adobe’s other Creative Cloud software, Premiere Pro also let’s you create OMF, XML, EDL and AAF files.Premiere Pro CC is available as part of the Adobe Creative Cloud subscription. A standalone subscription for Premiere Pro is $19.99 a month or alongside the entire Creative Cloud suite for $49.99 a month. The NLE is available for Mac and Windows users.Avid Media Composer 8Avid Media Composer remains an industry standard. While not the most-used software among independent editors, Media Composer is constantly used on major motion pictures — like Star Wars Episode VII.Media Composer is immensely popular for its cloud editing, which allows editors all over the world collaborate on a project. It was designed for broadcast facilities and large production workflows. Since so many large-scale productions rely on their technology, updates and plugins are not nearly as available as they are on the previous mentioned NLEs. However, this does make Avid much more robust.Avid Media Composer pricing varies on the packaged options. The program can be purchased for $1,299, annual subscription for $29.99 per month, or monthly subscription for $74.99 per month. The NLE is available for Mac and Windows.DaVinci Resolve 12 Since being acquired by Blackmagic Design, DaVinci Resolve has evolved tremendously. The color grading program has become so much more. As Blackmagic Design aims to takeover all parts of the video production workflow, DaVinci Resolve is evolving into an all-in-one editing software.DaVinci Resolve 12 introduced a built-in NLE into the color grading platform. Users can now edit multicam footage and color grade without have to export files. Not only is the NLE a new addition, DaVinci Resolve 12 also uses checksum verification to check that all media is transferred correctly from the camera’s memory cards. DaVinci Resolve is poising itself to become a major editing software in the coming future.DaVinci Resolve 12 is available as a Lite Version for Free or Studio Version for $995. The program is available for Mac, Windows, and Linux systems.Are you using any of these programs, or are you sticking to others? What NLE is poised to take over the market in the coming years? Let us know in the comments below.
The Blackmagic URSA is an exceptionally powerful camera, but it really isn’t intended for low-light shooting. This simple tip will help you get better results on set when working with limited light.Top image via Blackmagic DesignMany of us have become spoiled by cameras (like the Sony A7S or Canon C300) that offer the ability to shoot extremely high ISOs in ultra low-light conditions. On the flip side though, there are cameras like the Blackmagic URSA 4K which have a native ISO of 400 and a maximum ISO of 800, adding some challenges to ultra low-light shoots.I’ve been shooting with the Blackmagic URSA for a while now and it’s quickly become one of my favorite cameras. I don’t need to do a whole lot of ultra low-light shooting, but in some rare instances I’ve had to use the URSA in some very dark environments and have managed to get some solid results.Image via Blackmagic DesignIt goes without saying that, just like any camera, using fast lenses and adding in at least some ambient light will help you out when working under these circumstances. But many shooters make the mistake of shooting at ISO 800 on the URSA in order to bump up exposure, when they really should always be shooting at 400.Although this might seem counter-intuitive at first, you will quickly realize that bumping up your exposure in post will give you better results than simply setting the camera to ISO 800. The images will have less grain in them, without any fixed pattern noise issues at all.Image via Blackmagic DesignTypically when working in an under-lit situation, I’ll set the URSA to ISO 800 as I frame up the shot, add any lighting (if possible), and then set it back to ISO 400 before recording. This allows me to visualize what the shot will look like once I bring up the exposure in post, but also allows the camera to record the cleanest possible image — even if it’s underexposed.The URSA may not be designed to be a low-light camera, but when you know its limits and how to treat it properly, you can certainly get good results even when dealing with limited light.In this video from ASC Cinematographer Shane Hurlbut, he compares the various ISO settings on the Blackmagic URSA 4K.Ever used a Blackmagic URSA in low-light conditions? How did it work out for you? Let us know in the comments below!
Real estate videosChill Out 5. Use Advanced FiltersMuch like sorting by popularity, genre, tags, and instruments, Advanced Filters allow you to search by song length or BPM (beats per minute).I don’t often use the advanced filters for a song’s length, as I would much rather see if there are any available loops or short versions that work with a project.6. Listen to Loops and ShortsLoops and shorts are awesome. They can save so much time versus re-cutting a song to the right length. This is also helpful when you are cutting the same spot for different platforms at different lengths — like 15-, 30-, and 60-second versions of the same spot.If you still need to do some light audio editing to end a track, you can cut the song to the length you need and then rework the end of the song by adding reverb.How Other Video Editors Search for MusicEvery video editor has their own process for finding production music. In this Cinecom video, you’ll see how Jordy Vandeput digs through the PremiumBeat library using keywords and searching by mood. He then uses the advanced filters to pick the genre and downloads a preview track in his edit to see if the song works.In this example, Jordy also shows you how he uses the loops to create the perfect soundtrack for his video. Family-oriented promos and commercialsAcoustic FolkHuman Drama Wedding videosIndie PopElectro Pop Automotive commercialsTrailerCinematic Alcohol, retail, and utilities videosIndie Rock Here’s how you can narrow down the options at PremiumBeat to find the perfect track for your video project.For a video production blog hosted on a royalty free music licensing site, we don’t really talk about music that often — specifically, how to find the right song for your project, or faster ways to dig through our seemingly endless number of songs.Whenever I am searching for music, I have a few go-to tricks that help speed up the overall process. Some of these suggestions work on other sites as well, but some are exclusive to PremiumBeat. This article will help you find the right track, no matter where it’s from.I won’t discuss picking the right mood or deciding to use a track with or without vocals. You can find plenty of that information here and here. Instead, I’ll share the actual steps I take to speed up a music search.1. Create a Playlist for Each ProjectI listen to a lot of production music — A LOT! The very first thing I do when searching for music is create a new playlist for a project. (I also maintain dedicated playlists for repeat projects like wedding videos or quick social media edits.) With a playlist ready, I’ll start adding any potential songs that might work. If I happen to hear a song I really like, but it may not work for this particular project, I’ll add it to one of my repeat project lists or “favorite” the song. Before you know it, you’ll have several curated lists of music that you really like.The other benefit of creating music playlists is the ability to share playlists with clients. This is particularly helpful with corporate clients, as they can quickly preview tracks you’re thinking of using — even if you have to explain a million times that the final song really won’t repeatedly say “PremiumBeat Dot Com.” 2. Use the PremiumBeat.com Keyboard ShortcutsIf you aren’t already familiar with PremiumBeat’s keyboard shortcuts, you really are missing out. Perhaps the best time-saving feature of this site is the keyboard shortcuts for browsing and bookmarking songs. This is additionally beneficial once you’ve created playlists, as you can breeze through tracks and just hit “P” to open the add to playlist pop-up menu. Afterward, you can hit “L” to add a song to the latest playlist.Select the genre, mood, or artist you are looking for. As soon as the page loads, you can hit the spacebar to play the first track. Hit the spacebar again to pause. Video editors can usually get a strong sense of a track within the first few seconds. If the intro doesn’t grab you right away, you can hit the down arrow to hear the next song. If the intro is a maybe, but you aren’t sure about the song yet — you can hit the right arrow to jump forward in the song or the left arrow to go backwards.The other keyboard shortcuts are “F” to add a song to your favorites, “A” to add a song to your cart, and “C” to go to the checkout page.3. Narrowing Down the Most Popular SongsNow, it’s certainly easy to hop over to the Most Popular tab to find the top royalty free tracks, but since they are the most popular songs, you may see many of the same songs on the list over and over. If you need to refresh the playlist, you can change the Show tab to Most Popular — Last Week and then update the list to sort by Most Recent.This will update the list with the top-selling tracks over the past week, which will add some diversity to the playlist. I use the keyboard shortcuts to burn through the list pretty quickly and then move on to more options — especially once I start narrowing down the type of song I am looking for.4. Find Similar Songs Based on Songs You (or Your Clients) LikeIf your playlist already has a few tracks you really like, then you can go to an individual song’s page. There are a few options here. The individual song page will automatically generate similar songs once you scroll down.I tend to take a look at a song’s tags and instruments. If there is a certain aspect that a client likes, such as a kazoo or a clapping sound, you can click on that instrument to find other songs with the same instruments. When you click on a song’s tag, the site will direct you to an array of songs with the same feel. Royalty Free Music Suggestions from PremiumBeat Music Licensing SpecialistsNow that you know how to find the right track, it’s up to you to decide which techniques are the most helpful. Hopefully this will keep you from going crazy listening to audio watermarks every hour for days at a time.If you’re looking for where to start, our music licensing specialists have put together this list of royalty free music genre suggestions. The PremiumBeat music team includes touring musicians who collaborate with PremiumBeat artists to curate tracks just for video editing. Based on the latest trends, here are the top genres for these types of videos.Fashion filmsIndependentPunk RockTrap Do you have any tips for navigating PremiumBeat’s library? Let us know in the comments.
Some of the best salespeople are mimics. They learn by observing calls of more experienced salespeople or their sales manager. They pay attention, and they make observations about what they are seeing and hearing. But they pay closest attention to what the more experienced salesperson says and how they say it. By listening and capturing good language, they learn to mimic that language, saying the right thing at the right time in the right way.That good language works, and it helps the mimic produce better results than salespeople who don’t have a good model for effective language. But this transference of language isn’t happening much anymore.Working From Home Isn’t WorkingA lot of salespeople are working from home. And so are their managers. These work-from-home salespeople love the benefit of working from home, and their companies love the low overhead and the ability to place a rep in their territory. Everybody wins. Except when everybody loses.The salesperson is deprived of the experience of working in a bullpen, surrounded by salespeople, and riding on calls. The salesperson misses the learning experience.The sales manager is deprived of spending time with their salespeople. No good can come of this. Because their salespeople are working from home and missing the experiences they need to capture good language (and much more), they struggle to produce the results they need.Their clients are deprived of the experience of working with a salesperson who know how to communicate the value they create.It’s Not EnoughWeb meetings aren’t enough. Group calls aren’t enough either. There is something about real life, face-to-face interactions with clients that deepens the learning.You need to find ways to provide the experience of going on calls with experienced salespeople with excellent language. You need to help design the experiences that replicate that experience, as well as some opportunities for the sales team to practice the language.I can’t tell you how many calls I’ve left and heard the salesperson riding with me say, “I thought it was great when you said,” and then repeat language that I used that they found compelling and useful. I did the same when I rode with some of the people I learned from.How do you help transfer the ideas, the experiences, and the language to the salespeople who need it?
Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar inaugurated a fleet of 20 first responder bike ambulances on Thursday.First respondersThe 108 bike ambulance is targeted to reach injured people in the State without any delay. Professional paramedics will ride these two-wheelers. While the paramedic starts the resuscitation measures on the patient, a full-size ambulance will be sent to relieve them and take the patient to hospital.Overcoming obstaclesMr. Parrikar said the facility will help provide immediate and primary medical response as it will overcome obstacles like traffic congestion and narrow roads. The bikes are fitted with oxygen cylinder and other healthcare equipment required to stabilise the patient.Health Minister Vishwajit Rane said the ambulances will also help tourists in danger of drowning. He said the government plans to expand the fleet to 100 bikes.
Odisha’s ruling Biju Janata Dal on Wednesday won the bypoll in Bijepur Assembly seat in Bargarh district with an impressive margin of over 40,000 votes.The party’s Ritarani Sahu bagged a total of 1,02,871 votes, while Ashok Panigrahi of BJP came second with 60,938 votes and Pranaya Sahu of Congress got only 10,272 votes after all the 21 rounds of counting.Although a formal announcement about the outcome of the bypoll was likely to be made by the Election Commission after tabulation of the counting data, Chief Minister and BJD president Naveen Patnaik thanked the people of Bijepur for electing party nominee Ms.Sahu.Waving a victory sign, Mr. Patnaik termed the bypoll outcome a “rejection” of violence by the people of Bijepur. “Odisha is a peaceful State; the people will not stand for violence in a democracy,” he added.Mr. Patnaik was apparently hinting at a series of incidents in the run up to the bypoll, including slipper attack on him during an election meeting in Bijepur and murderous attack on State Labour Minister’s brother. The BJD had then accused BJP of its involvement in these incidents.The clean image of the Chief Minister and the State government’s various developmental works as well as her late husband Subal Sahu’s popularity helped her win the bypoll, Ms. Sahu told presspersons. “I will work for the all-round development of the people in our area and strive hard to fulfill my husband’s dream,” she added.The Bijepur seat had fallen vacant after the death Congress legislator Subal Sahu in August last year. Ms. Sahu had joined the BJD after a month of her husband’s death and Mr. Patnaik announced her name as party’s nominee for the bypoll.Ashok Panigrahi, a former BJD legislator had joined BJP in October last. The late Sahu was a prominent local leader of Congress.
Amid complaints by some BJP MPs that their problems are not being heard by the U.P. government, NDA ally SBSP on accused Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath of not following “coalition dharma” and said it felt “ignored” by him. “I will have detailed discussions with BJP president Amit Shah on various issues when he visits Lucknow on April 10 and then decide my party’s course of action,” Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party leader and U.P. Cabinet Minister Om Prakash Rajbhar told the media in Lucknow. He said the SBSP would rethink about the alliance if Mr. Shah did not agree on the issues raised by the party.Attacking the U.P. Chief Minister, Mr. Rajbhar said, “Why are MPs and MLAs angry with the (Adityanath) government? Why are they going to Delhi to convey their grievances? Why are the MLAs angry and are sitting on protests?” About the recent appointments made in the U.P. Secondary Education Board, Mr. Rajbhar said, “The BJP’s slogan of Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikaas is not being implemented in letter and spirit as relatives of senior BJP leaders from upper caste have been appointed. Now tell me where will the people from backward castes and scheduled castes will go?” “At meetings of the UP Cabinet, everyone’s views are heard but the decision is taken by just four-five people. If we have voted for you, then we should also have a say,” he said. A sulking Mr. Rajbhar in March rushed to Delhi with his complaint and met the BJP chief. He returned to Lucknow a bit mollified when Mr. Shah promised to visit the State capital on April 10 and hear him in detail in the presence of the Chief Minister. “I will tell you what the BJP wants and what Om Prakash Rajbhar wants after April 10,” he said.“If he (Mr. Shah) does not agree on the issues raised by us, as he had promised (during a meeting in Delhi ahead of the Rajya Sabha polls), we will have to rethink about the alliance,” he said, replying to a question.Ahead of the Rajya Sabha elections in U.P., Mr. Rajbhar had threatened that his MLAs would boycott the voting. The SBSP has four MLAs in the 403-member U.P. Assembly, where the BJP and its allies have a brute majority of 324 lawmakers. The SBSP leader was also critical of the BJP’s decision not to select the Chief Minister from among the 325 elected NDA MLAs in the State. “It appears that all of them were worthless,” he said.Mr. Rajbhar had recently said that corruption had increased in Uttar Pradesh under the present dispensation and that his party was not getting the due respect from the senior coalition partner.“Now their (the BJP) own MPs and MLAs are speaking against them and sitting on dharna… Look at the statements coming from people occupying responsible positions… There has to be something behind their speaking like this,” he said. He was referring to Lok Sabha MPs Ashok Kumar Dohrey (Etawah) and Yashwant Singh (Nagina) who had joined their Dalit colleagues to publicly express their unhappiness, especially after the recent protests against the Supreme Court order on the SC/ST Act.Earlier, Robertsganj Lok Sabha MP Chhote Lal Kharwar had written to Prime Minister Narendra Modi and accused Mr. Adityanath of “scolding” him when he went to take up an issue with him.While these three Dalit parliamentarians of the BJP have approached Mr. Modi with their concerns, Bahraich MP Sadhvi Savitri Bai Phoole has virtually turned a rebel, triggering speculation that she might join the BSP, which she had earlier quit to join the BJP.Ms. Phoole had slammed the Modi government for its stance on the apex court order on the SC/ST Act, saying it smacked of a conspiracy to scrap reservation for Dalits.The 37-year-old lawmaker from Bahraich went on to organise a mass rally in Lucknow on April 1, a day before the nationwide protests that saw Dalit anger spill over to streets across the country.
Three days after the killing of a woman government official, who was shot dead while she was supervising demolition drive of unauthorised constructions near Kasauli, a joint team of Himachal Pradesh and Delhi Police on Thursday arrested the accused – Vijay Singh – from Vrindavan town of Mathura in Uttar Pradesh.“It was a joint effort of Himachal Pradesh Police and Delhi Police special teams. Though he kept changing locations, we kept tracking him and nabbed him. He even stayed near the Mathura refinery and the Banke Bihari temple,” said Mohit Chawla, Superintendent of Police, Solan.Mr. Chawla said that the accused was hiding in disguise at the time of arrest. “He is being brought back to the state by the police team and will be produced before the court,” he added.Himachal Pradesh Police had come severe criticism from several quarters after the accused managed to escape in broad daylight after open firing on the victim. The Congress party criticised the BJP government in the state over the incident. Last Tuesday, assistant town and country planner Shail Bala was heading one of the four teams that were constituted to demolish illegal constructions. While she was supervising the sealing process at the Narayani Guest House on the Dharampur-Kasauli road, the guest house owner’s son Vijay Singh, after an altercation, opened fire, killing Shail Bala and critically injuring Gulab Singh, an employee of the Public Works Department.Himachal Pradesh government has ordered a magisterial probe into the incident. The inquiry, which has been ordered by Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur, would be headed by the divisional commissioner of Shimla and will submit its report in 15 days.
All 51 students of a government school in Palwal failed in the Haryana Board Class X examination, prompting the education department to ask authorities to initiate strict action against the “erring” teachers. All 51 students of Deeghot Senior Secondary School in Palwal who took Class X examination conducted by Haryana Board has failed, Palwal District Education Officer (DEO) Suman Nain said here on Thursday.Strict action ordered “My department has written to the Deputy Commissioner of Palwal to take strict action against the teachers as per rules,” she said after the State government ordered a probe into the poor result of the school. On Wednesday, the villagers locked the school in protest over the issue of poor education system, said Jitender Tanwar, sarpanch (village head) of Deeghot village. Last month, the Board of School Education Haryana (BSEH) had released the Haryana Board Class X results.
Pranav Goyal, who topped the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Advanced, let out the secret of his success — stay calm and be focused. He bagged the first rank by scoring 337 marks out of 360 in the examination.“If you focus well, your study hours won’t really matter. So, just stay focused and calm. Have faith in your teachers and their guidance, and always ensure that your knowledge is conceptually sound,” an excited Pranav told the media. Pranav, student of a private school in Panchkula, said solving the previous years’ papers helped in getting an insight into the pattern of the examination. He said that he was not a ‘bookworm’ and made sure that he got his daily dose of entertainment. “While studying for 7 to 10 hours a day, I never missed out on my 40 odd-minute dose of entertainment before bedtime. I used to watch cartoons and read books to de-stress,” Pranav said.“I want to study computer science engineering from IIT Bombay,” he added.Pranav, whose father is a businessman, was also the tricity (Chandigarh-Panchkula-Mohali) topper in CBSE Class 12th board examination with 97.2%.
Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader Deepak Mankar, who had been absconding since June after being booked for abetting the suicide of a local realtor, Jitendra Jagtap, surrendered on Wednesday.Mr. Mankar presented himself before Assistant Commissioner of Police Jayashree Gaikwad at the Lashkar police station after the Supreme Court rejected his petition for anticipatory bail on July 24, giving him 10 days to surrender. He was later produced before a local court which has remanded him in police custody till August 3.His petition had earlier been rejected by both the Pune sessions and Bombay High Court.Mr. Mankar, a sitting corporator in the Pune civic body, was named in a suicide note by Jagtap, who took his life in the city’s Ghorpadi area in June.The note also named a local developer, Sudhir Karnataki and seven others for allegedly harassing Jagtap over a plot of land in the city’s Rasta Peth area, which was being managed by him for several years.An FIR under Sections 306 (abetment to suicide), 506 (criminal intimidation) and 34 (common intention) of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) was registered at the Samarth police station against nine people, including Mr. Mankar by the police, who acted on a complaint lodged by the deceased’s son, Jayesh Jagtap.History of land-grabMr. Mankar, who was recently in the running for post of the NCP’s city unit chief, has a history of fraud and land-grab cases against him.In June 2009, the city police had booked Mr. Mankar (then with the Congress Party) for allegedly encroaching upon a piece of land in the city’s Baner area belonging to a senior citizen.That same month, he was booked in a second case along with builder Sudhir Karnataki for allegedly attempting to grab property belonging to a retired professor in the Shukrawar Peth area.After the Pune sessions court rejected his bail, Mr. Mankar absconded, leading police to launch a hunt to trace him.The case made local headlines after then Pune Police Commissioner and current Minister of State for Human Resource Development Dr. Satyapal Singh had announced a cash reward to those furnishing information of the missing politico’s whereabouts.Local Crime Branch authorities finally succeeded in arresting Mr. Mankar in July. However, he was granted bail by a local court in August 2009.
Non-bailable warrants have been issued against the accused in the Bulandshahr mob violence case, in which two persons, including a police officer, were killed, an official said on Wednesday.This came about after an application was submitted by the investigators before the Chief Judicial Magistrate court in Bulandshahr, arguing that the absconding accused were trying to influence the probe.“The accused are trying to spoil communal harmony by making videos of the incident viral and attempting to influence evidence,” said the application.A police officer confirmed that the NBWs have been issued against the accused, who included Bajrang Dal, Bulandshahr convenor, Yogesh Raj; BJP Yuva Morcha, Bulandshahr city president, Shikhar Agarwal; and former pradhan of Mahav village, Raj Kumar. The NBW application has 21 names of accused persons in the FIR, while six others have been added to the list.Meanwhile, two more accused persons, Nitin and Mohit, were arrested in the case, taking the total to 12. Some of those arrested were not named in the initial FIR.The arrested persons so far include Jeetu Fauji or Jitendra Malik, the Army jawan, who emerged as a key suspect in the murder of officer Subodh Singh. Jeetu Fauji is currently in judicial custody. He had pleaded innocence in the violence but allegedly admitted to bring present in Bulandshahr at the time of the incident.However, some of the main accused like Yogesh Raj are yet to be nabbed. Yogesh Raj and Shikhar Agarwal, while on the run, both issued videos claiming innocence in the mob violence case but are yet to surrender or be arrested.More than 70 people, with some of them allegedly having links to the VHP and its youth wing Bajrang Dal, were booked on charges of murder, attempt to murder, rioting, sedition, damage to public property and dacoity, among others in the mob violence case which took place after allegations of cow slaughter in a village in Bulandshahr.
Opposition to the Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2016, has brought rivals and allies of the Bharatiya Janata Party on the same page in Assam ahead of the parliamentary polls.Election to the 14 Lok Sabha seats in the State would be held in three phases on April 11, 18 and 23.On Monday, the National People’s Party said it would contest all the Assam seats to stop the BJP’s attempt to push the Bill in future. The Bill seeks to give Indian citizenship to non-Muslims who have fled religious persecution in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan till December 31, 2014.‘BJP to bring it back’The northeastern States had risen in unison to protest the Bill. Tempers were cooled after the BJP failed to get it passed in the Rajya Sabha in January, but party chief Amit Shah, during a pre-poll rally, promised to bring back the Bill if the BJP is re-elected.“We are committed to opposing the Bill. We hope to win as many seats in Assam to be in a position to do so,” NPP convener and former IPS officer Dilip K. Bora said.The NPP and BJP are otherwise ruling allies in three northeastern States – Manipur, Meghalaya and Nagaland.The Asom Gana Parishad, which has not spelled out its relationship with the BJP after walking out of the alliance government following differences over the Bill, has also lined up probable candidates for the 14 seats.Party president Atul Bora said that the AGP would make it difficult for the BJP, which won seven seats in 2014, to retain as many seats. “We are letting people know the BJP is bad news for their struggle to protect their culture and language,” he said.“We are better off without baggage. The AGP should learn from the panchayat polls (December last year) where it went alone and fared poorly,” BJP’s Assam president Ranjeet K. Dass said.ST statusThe Congress, keen on recovering ground lost to the BJP, has also made the Bill its major poll issue. “We will bin this Bill and grant ST status to six communities,” party’s Assam unit chief Ripun Bora said. The six communities – Adivasi (tea tribe), Chutia, Koch-Rajbongshi, Matak, Moran, and Tai-Ahom – have been demanding ST status for a long time.
Rashtriya Samaj Paksha (RSP) chief and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) ally Mahadev Jankar met Swabhimani Shetkari Sanghatana leader Raju Shetti in Pune on Tuesday, setting rumour mills buzzing overtime as the election inches closer.According to sources, Mr. Jankar, Minister for Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fisheries Development in the Devendra Fadnavis cabinet, held an hour-long meeting with Mr. Shetti where the duo reportedly discussed possibilities of forming a ‘fourth front’.Mr. Jankar, who offered stiff competition to Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader Supriya Sule from Baramati in 2014, is reportedly disgruntled with the BJP for sidelining smaller constituents like his RSP. Mr. Jankar, a tall leader from the Dhangar community, was elected MLC in 2015 and inducted into the State cabinet the next year.Mr. Shetti, on his part, has been long frustrated with the slow response from Congress over seat-sharing.“Both leaders have been disaffected with the shoddy treatment meted out by their respective alliance partners [the BJP in Mr. Jankar’s case and the Congress-NCP in Mr. Shetti’s case] and deliberated on the possibility of opening a ‘fourth front’ consisting of smaller parties. However, nothing concrete has been decided as yet,” said a Swabhimani Paksha leader, speaking to The Hindu on condition of anonymity.Mr. Shetti, on his part, said it was “a casual meeting”, and added that there was no real discussion about opening up a ‘fourth front’ as Mr. Jankar would have to pull out of the NDA first.Mr. Shetti also held a meeting of his party’s core committee after which he said he had given the Congress time till March 13 to make up their minds.In addition to the Hatkanangale Lok Sabha constituency in Kolhapur, Mr. Shetti has demanded the Buldhana and Wardha seats from the Congress-NCP alliance.“We have already announced our decision to go it alone in the general election if the talks with the Congress fail. We are resolved to contest 15 Lok Sabha seats and will announce our list of candidates by March 13,” Mr. Shetti said.He said his party was eager to join in a combine to defeat the ruling BJP, but clarified that the Swabhimani Paksha would join in the grand coalition led by the Congress and the NCP only if his party was given its due.“If the Congress does not respond to our ultimatum, we will have no alternative but to go our own way…our candidates have worked for more than two decades at the grassroots and we feel that we ought to be given the seats we have asked for,” said Mr. Shetti, a two-time MP from the Hatkanangale Lok Sabha constituency.
Young scientists need lighter workloads to help them live up to expectations and achieve success in and out of the laboratory, concludes a new report on the “Global State of Young Scientists.” That’s just one conclusion from the report, produced by the Global Young Academy, a Berlin-based offshoot of the InterAcademy Panel—the Global Network of Science Academies. For full coverage of the study, based on surveys and interviews involving hundreds of early-career researchers, see this story over at Science Careers.
In ancient mythology, salamanders could withstand fire. In modern times, though, just a small warming has been enough to dramatically change them—and perhaps threaten their future. Salamanders in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia have gotten smaller over the past 50 years due to increasing temperatures in their habitats, a new study has concluded. It’s the first confirmation that climate change can alter body size, a connection that had only been hypothesized in the past, and one of the fastest studied responses to changing temperatures on record.“This is helping us understand yet another way in which climate change could play out,” says ecologist Michael Adams of the U.S. Geological Survey in Corvallis, Oregon, who was not involved in the new work. “In this case, we’re learning how it can change the life history of an organism.”Over the past decade, scientists have documented several population declines in amphibians, including salamanders. But the causes of these declines have been hard to work out; some are due to disease, others to habitat loss or invasive species. Karen Lips, a biologist at the University of Maryland, College Park, wanted to determine what was behind dropping numbers of Plethodontidae, or lungless salamanders, across the eastern United States. The Appalachians are home to more salamander species than any place on Earth, many unique to the area. The Plethodontidae, the most numerous, represent a large and diverse family of salamanders that all respire through their skin. 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Although they didn’t find widespread evidence of disease, they did notice another trend: The salamanders had gotten smaller. Salamanders collected after 1980 were 8% smaller than those from decades past. The trend was most significant in places that had seen the largest shifts in climate during that time: low elevations with an increase in temperature and a decrease in rain, the team reports online today in Global Change Biology. On average, the salamanders shrunk by 1% per generation.Lungless salamanders, Lips explains, are highly sensitive to changes in their surrounding environment because of the way they breathe through their skin. When the temperature rises, their body speeds up. Using computer modeling, Lips’ collaborators showed that temperature increases in the areas of the Appalachians that have warmed over the past 50 years could speed the salamanders’ metabolisms by more than 7%.Lips’ team hasn’t yet confirmed the mechanism by which the change in body size has occurred, although she hypothesizes that it’s driven by the salamanders’ metabolisms. “If it’s a little bit warmer, the animal is going to burn through its calories much faster,” Lips says. If availability of extra calories or extra time to forage is limited, the salamanders will grow to a smaller adult size due to this increased calorie burn. And smaller salamanders, she says, lay fewer eggs and are more susceptible to predators. “In general, bigger is better for these guys,” Lips says.The scientists haven’t yet confirmed that the salamanders’ smaller size is behind the documented population declines, though they are confident that climate change is what’s driving the shrinkage in body size.Joseph Milanovich, an ecologist at Loyola University Chicago in Illinois, says that an ability to alter their body size could be what has allowed salamanders to survive previous temperature fluctuations. “These organisms have been on Earth for hundreds of millions of years,” he notes. “They’ve been through climate warming and cooling cycles before.” So the flexibility to alter their metabolism and body size may be an adaptation that’s arisen throughout these cycles. But that doesn’t mean that their current decrease in size will allow them to survive the faster pace of climate change that’s occurring now, Milanovich says.Lips and her colleagues next plan to study how the change in body size affects the lungless salamanders’ interactions with each other and other species. The change in size, she says, could have broader effects on the Appalachian forest habitats they live in due to their key role in the food chain.“These guys are really important in the food web of the forest,” Lips says. “They are extremely abundant and they play an important role in nutrient cycling by eating bugs and converting those into food for birds and mammals.” So understanding how salamanders respond to climate change is likely one piece of the larger story of how entire ecosystems respond, she says.