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Did the Reformation Advance Science?

first_imgIn a letter to F.L. Schaeffer, dated 1821, Madison explained that the American model of religious liberty “illustrates the excellence of a system which, by a due distinction, to which the genius and courage of Luther led the way, between what is due to Caesar and what is due God, best promotes the discharge of both obligations.” “For over the soul God can and will let no one rule but Himself,” Luther wrote. “Therefore, where temporal power presumes to prescribe laws for the soul it encroaches upon God’s government and only misleads and destroys the souls.” “When the modern human rights movement took shape after the Second World War, a committee of public intellectuals acknowledged Luther as they searched for a philosophical basis for an international bill of rights” Luther might be gratified to have learned that “Today the Catholic Church, once a fierce opponent of religious liberty, is one of its most vigorous defenders on the world stage.” That’s Loconte’s opinion, and circumstances may vary from country to country. Officially, the church still upholds the dogmas of the Council of Trent, which anathematized Luther’s ideas. At least they cannot burn heretics at the stake these days. The Reformation did have the effect of reducing some of the worst abuses of Catholicism, including indulgences and political entanglements, and some of its leaders give lip service to some of the Reformation’s ideals. “Rejecting the notion of a Christian commonwealth, Luther argued that the state possessed neither the competence nor a mandate from heaven to intrude into spiritual matters.“Luther did not embrace separation of church and state. “Nevertheless, virtually every important defense of religious freedom in the 17th century—the liberal politics of William Penn, Roger Williams, Pierre Bayle, and John Locke—took Luther’s insights for granted.”Because of these after-effects of the Reformation, The United States became “the first nation to enshrine in its constitution the Protestant conception of the rights of conscience.” In his defiance, Luther delivered a challenge to the conscience of the West like no other since the Sermon on the Mount—as essential today as it was half a millennium ago.A Reformation implies a prior Formation. Loconte’s ending statement implies that the Sermon on the Mount by Jesus was that Formation. The Reformation was not so much a new thing as a return back to the principles of individual liberty, conscience and personal responsibility. Try to derive a Scientific Revolution without that. Those principles are grounded in the Word of God, the Bible. They are alien to The Origin of Species by Natural Selection and the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.center_img Another benefit not mentioned by Loconte was the Reformation value of work, the so-called “Protestant work ethic” which viewed all labor—not only ecclesiastical work—as a calling from God. This opened the door for individual satisfaction in secular vocations. Calvin, in fact, encouraged scientific work as a means of glorifying God. He said, “there is need of art and more exacting toil in order to investigate the motion of the stars, to determine their assigned stations, to measure their intervals, to note their properties” (Pearcey and Thaxton, The Soul of Science, p. 23). By extension, any investigation into the workings of nature could be considered a divine calling. Kepler, a devout Lutheran, felt that way about his labors to decipher the “music of the spheres.”The AAAS just released a Statement on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility. While not mentioning the Reformation, one can see the influence of the Reformation behind it:Scientific freedom and scientific responsibility are essential to the advancement of human knowledge for the benefit of all. Scientific freedom is the freedom to engage in scientific inquiry, pursue and apply knowledge, and communicate openly. This freedom is inextricably linked to and must be exercised in accordance with scientific responsibility. Scientific responsibility is the duty to conduct and apply science with integrity, in the interest of humanity, in a spirit of stewardship for the environment, and with respect for human rights.The statement recognizes individual freedom, but also the flip side: personal responsibility. Scientists must do their work with integrity, Michaela Jarvis says in Science Magazine. Those are all distinctly Reformation values.Loconte ends with this eulogy to Luther. Consider the influence of this statement on the rise of science:Nevertheless, the moral courage and intellectual coherence of Luther’s dissent should not be undervalued. If Luther was a flawed prophet of human freedom, his voice was nonetheless vital in the long march toward a more just and pluralistic society. In Luther, we find an advocate for human dignity who defied the forces of religious oppression and reimagined the political ideals of medieval Europe. On this special 500th Anniversary Reformation Sunday, it’s important to consider the Reformers’ influence on the Scientific Revolution that followed.In a surprisingly favorable piece for a secular-materialist magazine, National Geographic published “Martin Luther and the Long March to Freedom of Conscience.” In this article, Joseph Loconte, an associate professor of history at the King’s College in New York City, recognizes that Luther was a “flawed prophet” (as do most historians; he was guilty of anti-Semitism, persecution of his opponents, and mixing church and state). Despite the flaws, however, Luther started a movement that rallied other reformers to bring in a new age of freedom. When Luther stood before the council that had ordered him to recant his writings, he said these epochal words:My conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not recant anything, for to go against conscience is neither right nor safe. Here I stand. I can do no other. God help me.On October 31, 1517—500 years ago this Tuesday—Luther nailed his “Ninety-Five Theses” to the door at All Saint’s Church in Wittenberg. At the time, he only wanted to start a reasoned debate, primarily about the Catholic church’s sale of indulgences (read the document here). Underlying these ideas, however, were challenges to church authority, and affirmations of individual conscience to interpret the Bible. Luther’s reading of the Bible had awakened in him a passion for God’s grace, and the light of truth he had long sought for his soul. Along with it came recognition that church authorities stood in direct contradiction to clear teachings of Scripture. Who has final authority? Clearly God does, but who gets to decide the meaning of His revelation? The answers to these questions would reverberate through subsequent history in a multitude of disciplines. One of those was science.In Nature, David Wootton downplays the Reformation, arguing that the Scientific Revolution would have happened without it. He credits the printing press and the discoveries of the New World as triggers. He thinks that Copernicus would have published his book anyway, and he discounts the religious faith of Kepler, Galileo and Newton. But does he really think Copernicus could have published his heliocentric theory within Europe under the control of strict Catholic dogma? Does he forget that Copernicus delayed publishing till the end of his life, and was assisted and encouraged by Protestants? Does he forget that the first great work printed was the Gutenberg Bible? Does he forget that Galileo was tried and found guilty by the Catholic authorities? While there may not be a direct line from Luther to the Scientific Revolution, here are some consequences of the Reformation that provided fertile ground for it.Loconte points out the following effects of the Reformation on the subsequent history of Europe:Religious liberty became a high value, weakening authoritarian political and ecclesiastical powers.“Deliberately or not, he overturned many of the bedrock assumptions of Western culture, instigating a revolution in human freedom that continues to shape the modern world.““…in defending a gospel of salvation ‘by faith alone,’ Luther introduced a new source of authority into the bloodstream of the West.”“The individual believer and his conscience, standing before God and his Word—here was a confession that redefined the meaning of faith and the dignity of the human person.“The Reformation weakened “the scandal of Christendom: a political society that preserved spiritual unity through coercion and violence.” This was far, far removed from the teachings of Jesus and the New Testament.Luther’s writings stimulated ideas of limited government, where he “sharply distinguished the aims of church and state, limiting the reach of government to preserving life and property.” (Visited 1,288 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Brand SA’s Sowetan Dialogues set for Polokwane

first_imgBrand South Africa is taking the Play Your Part / Sowetan Dialogues to Limpopo, with the latest in the series set to take place in the provincial capital of Polokwane.Titled ‘Debating Zuma’s State of the Nation: Fact vs Fiction’, the dialogue will take place at the Ngoako Ramathlodi Sports Complex in Seshego on 6 March, from 6pm until 8.45pm. This public dialogue forms part of a six part dialogue series aimed at promoting the pillars of South Africa’s National Development Plan, as well as to promote civic pride.President Jacob Zuma’s State of the Nation address, delivered in Parliament in Cape Town on 13 February, touched on a number of issues regarding the progress that the country has made since 1994. He also highlighted the challenges that the country has faced and still faces.Some have welcomed the speech as a tribute to what the government has achieved in the 20 years of democracy, while others have criticised the President for painting too rosy a picture. The Play Your Part / Sowetan Dialogue will give panelists the opportunity to engage with the issues that the President outlined, with the objective to explain its meaning for ordinary citizens in their everyday lives.“How will what the President said impact their lives at a practical level? How will his commitments translate into progress and change in their lives?” These are the questions that the panelists will seek to answer at the end of the day.The Dialogue also provides members of the audience with a chance to respond, as well as put forward their views on the topics raised in the President’s State of the Nation address, as well as put forward ideas on how ordinary South Africans can Play their Part to realise their desires and ensure that the government’s plans for their communities are carried out.The facilitator at the event will be Capricorn FM’s Ntsieni ‘Big Daddy’ Ramabulana, while the panel of speakers include Limpopo province Premier Stanley Mathabatha, political analyst Elvis Masoga and Polokwane Chamber of Business President Percy Mongalo.last_img read more

BJD wins Bijepur byelection

first_imgOdisha’s ruling Biju Janata Dal on Wednesday won the bypoll in Bijepur Assembly seat in Bargarh district with an impressive margin of over 40,000 votes.The party’s Ritarani Sahu bagged a total of 1,02,871 votes, while Ashok Panigrahi of BJP came second with 60,938 votes and Pranaya Sahu of Congress got only 10,272 votes after all the 21 rounds of counting.Although a formal announcement about the outcome of the bypoll was likely to be made by the Election Commission after tabulation of the counting data, Chief Minister and BJD president Naveen Patnaik thanked the people of Bijepur for electing party nominee Ms.Sahu.Waving a victory sign, Mr. Patnaik termed the bypoll outcome a “rejection” of violence by the people of Bijepur. “Odisha is a peaceful State; the people will not stand for violence in a democracy,” he added.Mr. Patnaik was apparently hinting at a series of incidents in the run up to the bypoll, including slipper attack on him during an election meeting in Bijepur and murderous attack on State Labour Minister’s brother. The BJD had then accused BJP of its involvement in these incidents.The clean image of the Chief Minister and the State government’s various developmental works as well as her late husband Subal Sahu’s popularity helped her win the bypoll, Ms. Sahu told presspersons. “I will work for the all-round development of the people in our area and strive hard to fulfill my husband’s dream,” she added.The Bijepur seat had fallen vacant after the death Congress legislator Subal Sahu in August last year. Ms. Sahu had joined the BJD after a month of her husband’s death and Mr. Patnaik announced her name as party’s nominee for the bypoll.Ashok Panigrahi, a former BJD legislator had joined BJP in October last. The late Sahu was a prominent local leader of Congress.last_img read more

Stay calm and be focussed, says IIT-JEE topper

first_imgPranav Goyal, who topped the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) Advanced, let out the secret of his success — stay calm and be focused. He bagged the first rank by scoring 337 marks out of 360 in the examination.“If you focus well, your study hours won’t really matter. So, just stay focused and calm. Have faith in your teachers and their guidance, and always ensure that your knowledge is conceptually sound,” an excited Pranav told the media. Pranav, student of a private school in Panchkula, said solving the previous years’ papers helped in getting an insight into the pattern of the examination. He said that he was not a ‘bookworm’ and made sure that he got his daily dose of entertainment. “While studying for 7 to 10 hours a day, I never missed out on my 40 odd-minute dose of entertainment before bedtime. I used to watch cartoons and read books to de-stress,” Pranav said.“I want to study computer science engineering from IIT Bombay,” he added.Pranav, whose father is a businessman, was also the tricity (Chandigarh-Panchkula-Mohali) topper in CBSE Class 12th board examination with 97.2%.last_img read more

Ravena back right away for PH team in Fiba Asia Champions Cup

first_imgPhoto by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netA veteran of numerous international wars, Kiefer Ravena is set to lead Chooks-to-Go Pilipinas in the 2017 Fiba Asia Champions Cup which starts on Friday in Chenzhou, China.Even coach Chot Reyes admitted he expects a lot from the 23-year-old guard, who is coming off a fourth gold medal in the Southeast Asian Games in Kuala Lumpur.ADVERTISEMENT Teng brothers team up as part of Chooks Pilipinas LOOK: Loisa Andalio, Ronnie Alonte unwind in Amanpulo for 3rd anniversary Read Next The former Ateneo Blue Eagle is no stranger to international competitions but he said that the continental club championship presents a different challenge not just for him but for the whole team.“This is my first time here and not discounting the SEA Games and the SEABA (Championship), in terms of Asian basketball, this is the highest level I’ve been in. Playing in 3-on-3 in the world is still different from the 5-on-5 game,” he said.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutRavena also said that the leadership role won’t be solely on his shoulders, as he looks forward to linking up with prospective naturalization candidate Isaiah Austin, granting the lanky 7-foot-1 center gets his Chinese visa.“Isaiah is going to be big for us. Hopefully, his papers will go as smooth as possible. In terms of this tournament, he’s really an asset to the team. It’s not very often you see a 7-1 who can play the wing in Asia. We’re very lucky. Hopefully, he fixes it and helps the team,” he said. Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa LATEST STORIES BSP sees higher prices in November, but expects stronger peso, low rice costs to put up fight Nonong Araneta re-elected as PFF presidentcenter_img E.T. returns to earth, reunites with grown-up Elliott in new ad  Fire hits houses in Mandaluyong City MOST READ Frontrow holds fun run to raise funds for young cancer patients  Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles03:07PH billiards team upbeat about gold medal chances in SEA Games01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games “We expect to really give our hearts out. You’re already there, so why not go for the win and do everything you can? We’re in a group where we have a chance to advance to the next stage, so hopefully we can win as many games as we can,” he said.Chooks-to-Go Pilipinas is in Group A along with ONGC of India, Mono Vampire of Thailand, Petrochimi of Iran, and Sarreyet Ramallah of Palestine.“Again, it’s a test of character, a test of our willingness to win. These are the games where every game will be a grind out game. You have no choice but to find a way to win and we will find it,” he said.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View commentslast_img read more

4 days agoWATCH: Liverpool ace Oxlade-Chamberlain clashes with angry Man Utd fans

first_imgWATCH: Liverpool ace Oxlade-Chamberlain clashes with angry Man Utd fansby Paul Vegas4 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool ace Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain clashed Manchester United fans after full-time at Old Trafford.The midfielder was clearly told to “F*** off” while talking to one fan, while another rejected his offer of a fist bump.It’s not clear why the 26-year-old went to the home fans after the end of the 1-1 draw.Some viewers on social media claimed that Ox had been getting some stick from that section of the crowd while warming up.Oxlade-Chamberlain involved in row with Man Utd fans as smiling star told to ‘f*** off’ and has fist bump rejected It is not clear why the smiling Ox went over to the fans. The incident took place after the 1-1 draw between Man Utd and Liverpool at Old Trafford pic.twitter.com/x6b86Lx20t— Lilian Chan (@bestgug) October 20, 2019 About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

Hamilton looking to extend F1 lead at Singapore Grand Prix

first_imgSingapore: Lewis Hamilton aims to turn up the heat in his bid for a sixth Formula One championship at this weekend’s Singapore Grand Prix. The Mercedes driver heads into Sunday’s race with a 63-point lead over teammate Valtteri Bottas. As with last year’s race, drivers can expect sweltering heat and humidity. In addition to the heat, a thick haze has set in over the city-state with advisories issued from the national government over “unhealthy” air conditions. Hamilton will be hoping for a repeat of the 2018 race here when he won comfortably from pole position to extend his championship lead. He was on a major roll entering last year’s GP, having won four of the past five races. While he already has eight wins this season, the British driver last won at the Hungarian GP in early August. “The offset schedule and the climate make it a demanding weekend for the team,” Mercedes team principal Toto Wolff said of the night race. “Temperatures in the garage can easily reach 40 degrees Celsius (104 F) or more with high humidity levels as well. It’s a tough environment to work in and it’s equally challenging for the drivers and the car itself.” Hamilton has won here the last two years. A win on Sunday would move him a step closer to his third straight championship and sixth overall, moving him just one away from equaling Michael Schumacher’s all-time record of seven titles. Ferrari driver Charles Leclerc heads into Singapore having won the previous two races this season.last_img read more

New Delhi Delhiites woke up to a humid day on Thu

first_imgNew Delhi: Delhiites woke up to a humid day on Thursday, with the minimum temperature settling at 23.8 degrees Celsius. The relative humidity in the morning was recorded at 83 per cent. “The minimum temperature settled at 23.8 degrees Celsius, two notches above the season’s average while the maximum temperature is expected to hover around 35 degrees Celsius,” a MeT Department official said. The weatherman has forecast a generally cloudy sky with possibility of development of thunder or lightning. On Wednesday, the city registered a low of 23.4 degrees Celsius while the maximum temperature had settled around 32 degrees Celsius.last_img read more

Washington DC The US government plans to collect

first_imgWashington DC: The US government plans to collect the DNA of all migrants detained after entering the country illegally, officials said Wednesday. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is developing a plan to take DNA samples from each of the undocumented immigrants and store it in a national database for criminal DNA profiles, they said. Speaking to journalists on grounds of anonymity, DHS officials said the new policy would give immigration and border control agents a broader picture of the migrant and detainee situation. Also Read – Saudi Crown Prince Salman ‘snubbed’ Pak PM Imran, recalled his private jet from US: ReportAnd stored on the FBI’s CODIS DNA database, it could also be used by others in law enforcement and beyond. “It does enhance our ability to further identify someone who has illegally entered the country,” said one official. “It will assist other organizations as well in their identification ability.” Officials said they were in fact required to take the DNA samples by rules about the handling of arrested and convicted people that were issued by the Justice Department in 2006 and 2010, but which had not been implemented. Also Read – Iraq military admits ‘excessive force’ used in deadly protestsThey said the program for collecting DNA was still being developed, and they did not have a date set for implementation. Collecting and storing the DNA of people simply detained and not tried or convicted of a crime has drawn criticism from civil rights advocates. “Forced DNA collection raises serious privacy and civil liberties concerns and lacks justification, especially when DHS is already using less intrusive identification methods like fingerprinting,” Vera Eidelman, an attorney with the American Civil Liberties Union, said in a statement.last_img read more

NEW DELHI In the last one week the price of urad

first_imgNEW DELHI: In the last one week, the price of urad dal has increased by Rs 450-Rs 850 per quintal in the major markets of the country. Along with urad, the prices of moong, masoor and chickpeas (chana) dal have also gone up. Experts opine that pulses will be more expensive because the urad crop has suffered in Madhya Pradesh due to the incessant rain. At the same time, sowing of pulses has also been estimated to be less in this kharif season than last year. Also Read – More good air days in Delhi due to Centre’s steps: JavadekarRajni, a resident of Delhi’s Mandawali area, said that after the spike in vegetable prices, she used to manage with potatoes and lentils as the prices were low, but now pulses have also become expensive. Earlier, chickpeas (chana) was available at Rs 55-Rs 60 per kg, but now it has gone up to Rs 65-Rs 70 per kg while chickpea lentils (chana dal) is at Rs 90 per kg. The price of FAQs in the National Capital Region of Delhi was up by Rs 450 to Rs 5,400 per quintal from the previous week. The price of FAQ Urad in Chennai was Rs 5,650, UQ of SQ Variety was Rs 6,775 per quintal. In Chennai, the prices of FAQ and SQ have increased by Rs 600 and Rs 525 per quintal respectively in the last one week. The price of FAQ Urad in Kolkata rose by Rs 850 to Rs 6,200 per quintal in the last one week. Also Read – Union min Hardeep Singh Puri, Delhi L-G lay foundation stones for various projects in DwarkaThe price of moong has also increased by Rs 100-Rs 200 in various cities during the last one week. The price of Rajasthan Line Moong was Rs 6,100 per quintal in Delhi on Tuesday. In Delhi, the price of moong has increased by Rs 200 per quintal in the last one week. At the same time, the price of gram has increased by Rs 25-Rs 100 per quintal in major mandis of the country in the last one week. In Ganj Basoda, Madhya Pradesh, the price of desi gram increased by Rs 100 to Rs 4,100 on Tuesday. The price of Lemon Tur in Delhi was Rs 5,300 a quintal and there has been no significant change in the price in the last one week. During the crop year 2018-19 (July-June), the total production of all pulses was estimated to be 234.8 lakh tonnes, while traders indicated that the total consumption of pulses in the country was around 240 lakh tonnes. Not only this, in the current crop year 2019-20, the production of Kharif pulses could be 82.3 lakh tonnes in 2019 as compared to 92.2 lakh tonnes in 2018. President of the All-India Dal Mill Association, Suresh Agarwal said that the government agency National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED) has a full stock of red gram and Bengal gram and also the new crops of red gram will arrive in November-December.last_img read more