Psychologists get their hands into everything, but the objectivity of their science is questionable.People are complex beings. They can be manipulated, but they can also resist manipulation. It’s impossible to know all the background factors and variables they may exhibit in certain situations. Let’s see how well science can measure “awe” – which psychologists at the University of Buffalo took on as a science project. Did they gather true knowledge, or just buffalo their readers?We experience the emotion of awe when exposed to something larger than the self. Awe can arise from the practices of a particular faith tradition or a grand natural vista, but it does not necessarily have to be dramatic.Here were their variables:Self-distancing: the ability to position yourself as outside your experience, as if a bystander.Self-immersion: the feeling of being inside your experience, seeing yourself through your own eyes.Religion or nature: Coping strategies when under stress.Performance stressor: a task likely to elicit a challenge or threat response.Challenge: a positive stressor a person may feel able to handle.Threat: a negative stressor a person may feel is unmanageable.The question: Does an experience of awe produce a challenge response or a threat response?The hypothesis: People who engage in self-distancing when experiencing awe respond positively to a performance stressor. People who engage in self-immersion, by contrast, respond negatively.The experiment: “The researchers had 182 participants complete a measure of spontaneous self-distancing. They were then exposed to either an awe-inducing nature video or a neutral documentary on small sea creatures and later asked to prepare and deliver a two-minute speech on a setback or obstacle they experienced.”The measurements: Heart rate, amount of blood pumped per minute, and the flow of blood into the tissues. These measurements contribute to the “bio-psycho-social model of challenge and threat.”Conclusions: The hypothesis was confirmed. Previous studies had shown the value of awe for well-being. This study, the authors feel, refines the effects of awe, showing it is not always positive. “To maximally benefit from awe when facing subsequent stressors, we may need to take a step back from ourselves before we take it all in,” says Mark Seery, associate professor of psychology at the University of Buffalo.Critique: This all looks scientifically legit, doesn’t it? The psychologist asks a question needing clarification. He or she (we’ll use “he” since Mark was featured in the press release) defines terms. He devises a hypothesis and tests it, using standard procedures to gather data on measurable quantities on a sufficient sample of human subjects. He uses uniform techniques on the subjects, using controls (“a neutral documentary on small sea creatures” – maybe watching goldfish in a bowl). He interprets the data to check whether the hypothesis was confirmed or falsified. Based on his results, he makes recommendations to the public for their benefit. Who could criticize this beautiful example of science in action?We agree that a sense of awe is good, but we have some questions about this project. We want to know if the results are due to confirmation bias, chance or poor experimental design. What dubious assumptions went into the project design and its conclusions? Let’s note some potential problems.Subjectivity. Not all “awe” is the same. Religious awe may be different from nature awe. In religion, people may feel awe at God’s love or his wrath. In nature, people may feel awe at a king cobra, lightning, or a peaceful spring wildflower scene. Are these sensations of awe really comparable for scientific analysis?Imprecision. The definitions of awe, religion, self-immersion and other terms seem squishy.Sample bias. The 182 participants may not represent a valid enough sample of the human population to draw generalizations.Mental variability. Not everyone experiences awe at the same level.Object variability. Not everyone experiences awe at the same objects.Subject surroundings. The subject could have been affected by sleep, diet, or previous stresses before participating, which were unknown to the investigator. The attractiveness of the investigator, or even the lighting and decor in the room could have unconscious influences.Subject understanding. Some of the subjects may not have understood what the project was about.Subject obedience. Persons may have differed in their ability to follow instructions.Stressor variability. Not everyone is stressed by giving a speech; some may fear it, but others may enjoy it.Physical variability. Blood flow does not necessarily respond the same way in all humans under awe or stress.Subject integrity. Participants can lie about their experiences, or fake out the psychologist for various reasons.Replication. Would the results be replicated by a different team using the same method with different people in a different country, brought up in a different culture, social class and education?Confirmation bias. The psychologists may have had a hunch what the correct conclusion should be, and may have unconsciously steered the data collection to confirm it.Worldview bias. Did the psychologists’ beliefs about human nature color their experimental design and conclusions?Other bias. Were the psychologists influenced by peer pressure, publish or perish pressure, funding pressure (to confirm what the funding source wanted), desire for fame, desire to promote their institution, or other motivations other than a purely objective desire to know?We’re just getting started with potential problems here. There may be “under-determination of theory by data” in this experiment (i.e., different theories might account for the same data). Did the scientists eliminate all sources of subjectivity and bias? Did they attempt to falsify their conclusion? Was the peer review adequate? Readers may be able to lengthen this list of problems. Soon, the whole project might look very suspect. Understand that we’re not trying to be critical, because we pretty much agree with the conclusions, that awe is a good and healthy emotion to have, and the ability to distance yourself from stressors probably improves the awe experience. What we’re illustrating is that even with apparently well-designed and well-executed psychological experiments, all kinds of issues can diminish the value of any conclusions. If that happens with a fairly neutral psychology project like this, how much more with more controversial psychological claims? The closet of psychology is stuffed with skeletons: phrenology, racism, female hysteria, lobotomy, shock therapy – embarrassments that psychology departments would rather forget.Is psychology a science at all? Some parts of it may be. For instance, educational psychology can produce testable results, leading to advice for teachers and students on best methods for memorization or comprehension. Other parts, however, get really weird. Psychological theories come and go more often than women’s fashions. Some parts of psychology are clearly evil, justifying sexual perversions (Kinsey) or criminal behavior (Clarence Darrow). The worst charlatans are the evolutionary psychologists who try to explain all human behavior as rooted in our ape-like past – or even our bacteria-like past. Many evolutionary biologists cannot stomach the ridiculous ideas of evolutionary psychology.You can’t put humans in a test tube. If the Harvard Law* applies to animal subjects, how much more to human subjects! How can fallible humans look into the minds of other humans and understand what is going on in there? Only God knows the heart.*Harvard Law: “Under the most rigorously controlled conditions of pressure, temperature, volume, humidity, and other variables, the organism will do as it darn well pleases.”Our most severe critique of psychology is that it is a replacement for religion, masquerading as science. Allowing for some exceptions, as we said concerning effective memorization techniques and the like, it is predominantly a false religion. It has its own theology, anthropology, and soteriology. It denies sin. It denies a Savior. It denies a Creator. Some secular psychologists even deny the mind and consciousness. Most psychologists have a different god: the BBBB (Big Brother Bearded Buddha, Darwin). Who would want to trust these guys?To the extent psychology is wrong, it can be dangerously wrong. To the extent it is right, you don’t need it. If you have the Manufacturer’s Handbook, why would you go to sinful humans who deny what the Creator has said about human nature? Why would any Bible-preaching pastor send his sheep to the wolves? Why would any Christian counselor blend Biblical truth with secular lies, creating a mishmash that is oxymoronically called “Christian psychology”? Jesus is the Good Shepherd who loves the sheep and cares for them. Scientists sometimes analyze things to death. Measuring blood flow in subjects asked artificial questions about their feelings watching “a neutral documentary on small sea creatures” is awful in a way; it takes the awe out of awe. If you want to learn about awe, go out into creation and forget about yourself. Turn your attention to God who made it. Go to a Bible-teaching church and join in song, O Lord my God, when I in awesome wonderConsider all the worlds Thy hands have made;I see the stars; I hear the rolling thunder,Thy power throughout the universe displayed.Then sings my soul, my Savior, God, to Thee:How great Thou art! How great Thou art!Resource: Get more AWE into your life (Adventure • Worship • Education) with Creation Safaris! Start a group or join a like-minded ministry and “Escape to Reality,” where there is Awe in plenty in the great outdoors. Learn more about this on CreationSafaris.com. Creation Safaris is a sister ministry of Creation-Evolution Headlines, sponsored by Master Plan Association.(Visited 301 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
17 October 2005The South African .za Domain Name Authority (.zaDNA) has launched a public consultation process to ensure management of the country’s domain name is in line with global practice.The .za domain is South Africa’s cyber address code, used to identify local e-mail addresses and websites.The .zaDNA, established in terms of the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act of 2002, is responsible for the administration and management of the .za internet domain.The domain name discussion document, launched in Johannesburg in September, aims to get the South African public involved in creating a structured model for the domain name space, in line with global practice, establishing policies relevant to a maturing internet, ensuring growth of the internet and narrowing the digital divide.“The purpose of the process is to obtain comment and input on the structure of the .za domain and to engage a wide range of stakeholders in a far broader process regarding its use, including access, education and outreach,” the authority said.“We want this to be in line with the global practice and ensure internet growth locally,” said .zaDNA chairperson Hasmukh Gajjar. “We want to close the gap in the digital divide and have as many parties involve in the process as possible.”Other issues are how the South African domain name should be structured, including whether it should be opened up for second-level registrations, and who should administer the database of .za domains.The document also calls for input about whether subdomains – gov.za, org.za, ac.za and so on – should be administered by a centralised organisation, or by multiple registries.“The growth of the internet in South Africa was not a formal, structured process and the structure and management of the domains used to identify and address users and infrastructure developed through a largely informal process,” the document says.“The ad hoc efforts of the pioneers are no longer appropriate in an environment where the internet has become a communications mechanism.”Communications Minister Ivy Matsepe-Cassaburri has asked the authority to educate the public about the use of the domain name. She said the campaign should reach all South Africans, and should be in a language that people outside the internet community can understand.“We are a country that is continuously changing, so it is imperative that all be involved in the process,” she said.The .zaDNA hopes the consultative process will come up with ways to narrow the digital divide.“This divide exists not only in respect of access to technology but also in respect of the knowledge regarding the technology,” its document says.“There are a number of policy considerations which are crucial for the ongoing growth of the internet community in our country as well as the stability of the existing infrastructure. The authority may need to consider education and outreach programmes to narrow the digital divide.”Other issues to be considered include:funding ongoing internet growth,including previously excluded communities as practitioners and entrepreneurs,education and skills development, andinternational trends around governance, policy formulation and expansion.Interested people have until the end of January 2006 to make submissions. Comments can be posted to Suite 175, Postnet x15, Menlo Park, 0102; e-mailed to email@example.com; or faxed to +27 (0)12 361 9515. For more information, visit www.zadna.org.za.SouthAfrica.info reporter Want to use this article in your publication or on your website?See: Using SAinfo material
Prof Richard Whitaker has completed and published a South African English translation of Homer’s Iliad. Richard Whitaker’s translation brings the epic tale to life, and highlights the many common aspects between the traditional Greek and African societies that were lost in Euro-centric translations.(Images: Richard Whitaker)MEDIA CONTACTS• Richard Whitaker +27 21 650 2607RELATED ARTICLES• Sea life explained for young explorers • Swimmer’s memoir up for award • Homegrown artistic talent honoured • JM Coetzee archive heads to US Wilma den HartighHomer’s Iliad, the well-known Greek poem set in the Trojan War, has been translated into English versions and virtually every language in the world for many centuries, but now a South African professor in classic literature has published the first South African English translation of the epic tale.Prof Richard Whitaker from the School of Languages and Literature at the University of Cape Town spent a decade translating the 3 000-year-old text directly from the ancient Greek, for South African readers.The project was quite an undertaking, considering that Whitaker didn’t work on it fulltime, but fitted it in between other work commitments.“I first read The Iliad as a teenager and I loved it then,” says the author who never lost his fascination for the text and has read and taught the work over several decades, both in Greek and English.“I felt that there was a need for a South African English translation. It was an opportunity to reflect South African language, society and culture,” Whitaker says.In the translation Whitaker uses South African words from all 11 official languages, such as amakhosi (the Zulu and Xhosa word for chiefs and headmen), kgotla (Tswana for community councils), kloof (Afrikaans for valley), sloot (Afrikaans for ditch), assegai or umkhonto (Zulu for spear), lobola (Zulu for dowry) and kraal (Afrikaans for a livestock enclosure or homestead).Local or international readers who aren’t familiar with all the words can consult the glossary at the end of the book, which explains their meanings and gives the Standard English equivalents.The 528-page translation is self-published and Whitaker hopes that academics, students and ordinary South Africans will enjoy reading it. The Iliad of Homer: A Southern African translation can be ordered here.Celebrating South African English and cultureWhitaker says there is no reason why classic works such as The Iliad can’t be translated into local English.“It seemed to me that Southern African English by now had a vocabulary and register of its own that deserved to be reflected in poetic translation,” he says.“I speak Standard English, but I, like most, also speak a Southern African English that is studded with words from other local languages,” Whitaker said in his introduction to the translated text, referring to popular words such as lekker (Afrikaans for nice) and mugu (an urban African slang word for fool).“There is a clear indication that South African English is beginning to take itself seriously, is staking a claim to be a distinct variety.”He says although South African English is often perceived as comic, the language can be used in a serious register. “I want to show that it can be used to translate classics and works of high culture.”Whitaker’s translation brings the epic tale to life, and highlights the many common aspects between the traditional Greek and African societies that were lost in Euro-centric translations.The author succeeds in retaining elements of Homer’s world which could resonate with South Africans, such as the payment of bride-price in cattle, and warriors winning praises in combat.Whereas other translations refer to palaces, princes, royal courts and kings, he believes the society depicted in Homer’s text is a tribal world of small warring communities headed by chiefs.“In South African English it is less alienating and more accurate,” he says.Instead of reflecting the world of European elites as earlier translators had done, Whitaker in his version tries to mirror a world closer to home: Achilles, armed with his assegai (a traditional spear), conquers many Trojan impis (the Zulu word for regiments), before he and his men celebrate with a feast of grilled meat which South Africans refer to as a braai.A relevant teaching toolHe hopes that the translation will nurture a love for the classics, and help students gain a better understanding of the poem.“I am interested to see how students respond,” he says. “I hope it will intrigue and delight them.”Whitaker has been invited to teach his translation of The Iliad at the Eastern Cape’s Rhodes University next year.The South African English version has received international acclaim, and various publications such as the Wall Street Journal, Daily Telegraph, the Middle East North Africa Financial Network and the Greek World Reporter have highly recommended Whitaker’s translation.“What really pleased me is that overseas people are intrigued by the translation.”
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Nothing different this morning to our forecast the rest of the week. It is warm, and it is dry. Yesterday’s pop up shower action was nearly as expected but today there is no threat of even any pop-up moisture and that is the same story tomorrow and Friday. Sunshine will dominate.This weekend we are zeroing in on that moisture that looks like it wants to drift in from the north, as an offshoot of the Great Lakes disturbance. We are going to insert scattered showers in our Saturday afternoon forecast for areas from US 30 northward but will keep the state dry south of US 30. The northern rains will be no more than a few hundredths to a tenth or two, and will have only 30% coverage. The precipitation, if it falls, will not last long either. However, the threat can linger into evening.We are speeding out next system up just a bit as well. That means on Sunday, we can see scattered showers develop north and east of a line from Van Wert to Marietta. We only expect a few hundredths to a quarter inch through the day with 60% coverage in that part of the state, but we can’t keep things clear either. Showers and thunderstorms spread across the rest of the state Monday midday through Tuesday, giving nearly 80% coverage, and rain totals of .25″-1″. The map at right shows cumulative rain totals through next Tuesday. This includes the scattered weekend action, but the bulk of this comes from the Monday-Tuesday event. We are dry next Wednesday.Up to this point in the forecast, various computer models are in relative agreement. They may differ on timing a bit, but generally have moisture totals that are similar, and hold true our thoughts as well. Next Thursday features a major divergence of opinion. One model, the European, develops a monster thunderstorm complex over Illinois Wednesday overnight, and rips it through Indiana and Ohio. Action in Ohio would likely wait to really kick off until midday Thursday or a little later in this scenario. However, others, including the GFS, Canadian and Japanese models, have absolutely nothing in that time frame. Not even a little bit of moisture. Our forecast has favored dryness behind the early week system and we are keeping that bias this morning. However, it is important to follow the Euro, as it has handled the near-term pattern well, even down to the pop-up action of yesterday. Plus, we will be in need of some significant moisture by that time, even if we do pick up totals early in the week closer to the maximum end of the ranges. Given the current state of crops, moving into and through the reproductive phases, a rain of large magnitude and at that timing would be huge. But, it also looks to be a little too good to be true…a little too much to jump on right now.For the extended period, we have dry weather from next Friday through Monday the 23rd. Then we have a front for the 24th with half to 1 inch potential, followed by a return to dry weather for the 25th through at least the 27th. If this forecast verifies, that means we have exactly 2 chances of significant moisture between now and the 27th, and we have not seen much significant moisture for the month thus far.Temperatures will be above normal through the next 10 days, save for when rains are falling. So, next Monday can be normal to slightly below, but that is it in our current forecast. Our average above normal push will be around 2-5 degrees over regular daytime highs.
SharePrint RelatedCitygarden Tour GC2AX7Q GEOCACHE OF THE WEEK – April 2, 2012April 2, 2012In “Community”Take a 32-Stage Journey Through Central Park — Bridges & Arches of Central Park (GC17MX1) — Geocache of the Week Video EditionFebruary 12, 2015In “Community””Lego – einer ist zuviel” GC13Y2Y GEOCACHE OF THE WEEK February 14, 2011February 14, 2011In “Community” Down the Rabbit Hole (GCXQ5C)The treasures of New York City’s Central Park reveal themselves as geocachers search for this micro-cache. More than 1250 geocachers have already logged a smiley on the cache, “Down the Rabbit Hole” (GCXQ5C).The difficulty two, terrain two cache is located somewhere near a statue dedicated to the creative genius behind Alice in Wonderland.The cache page warns, “USE STEALTH – muggles are everywhere! GPS signals are weak here but be patient the cache IS there and when in doubt read the clue!”The cache was hidden back in 2006. The cache was originally placed by gracepap. Geocacher madm now maintains the cache and altered the cache hide from a ‘lamp post cache’ to a micro-cache.Down the Rabbit Hole (GCXQ5C)A hunt for this geocache offers adventurers a purposeful exploration of one of the crown jewels of New York City. One geocacher who logged this cache writes, “This is my first time in New York City ever! Central Park is an awesome sight to behold! I love this group of statues and the other monuments around the park. An easy find!”Continue your exploration with some of the most engaging geocaches from around the world. Explore all the Geocaches of the Week on our blog or view the Bookmark List on Geocaching.com.Share with your Friends:More
Thank you to everyone for your patience and understanding. The revised NTL and Elite 8 draws have now been released: 2018 Updated NTL DrawThe conditions of the fields and the weather are improving hour by hour so we’re looking forward to games commencing at 8am tomorrow (Thursday 8th March)!Info on game formats:All preliminary-round matches on Thursday and Friday will be played under a 30-minute touchdown turnaround format. Games will revert to 2 x 20-minute halves on Saturday for finals.Touchdown Turnaround Format (Preliminary Rounds): All preliminary-round matches on Thursday and Friday will be 30 minutes in lengthTeams will turnaround after each touchdown scored, i.e. they will defend the score line they just scored onThere is no half-time Saturday Matches (and all Finals):All finals and play-off matches will remain as 2 x 20-minute halves with a 5-minute half-time (unless further weather impacts)The Women’s T-League Quarter Finals on Friday will be played as 2 x 20-minute halves
Singapore: Lewis Hamilton aims to turn up the heat in his bid for a sixth Formula One championship at this weekend’s Singapore Grand Prix. The Mercedes driver heads into Sunday’s race with a 63-point lead over teammate Valtteri Bottas. As with last year’s race, drivers can expect sweltering heat and humidity. In addition to the heat, a thick haze has set in over the city-state with advisories issued from the national government over “unhealthy” air conditions. Hamilton will be hoping for a repeat of the 2018 race here when he won comfortably from pole position to extend his championship lead. He was on a major roll entering last year’s GP, having won four of the past five races. While he already has eight wins this season, the British driver last won at the Hungarian GP in early August. “The offset schedule and the climate make it a demanding weekend for the team,” Mercedes team principal Toto Wolff said of the night race. “Temperatures in the garage can easily reach 40 degrees Celsius (104 F) or more with high humidity levels as well. It’s a tough environment to work in and it’s equally challenging for the drivers and the car itself.” Hamilton has won here the last two years. A win on Sunday would move him a step closer to his third straight championship and sixth overall, moving him just one away from equaling Michael Schumacher’s all-time record of seven titles. Ferrari driver Charles Leclerc heads into Singapore having won the previous two races this season.
Satyameva Jayate 2 is twice the action, emotion, power, patriotism and punch, promises its director Milap Zaveri. Satyameva Jayate, a high-octane vigilante action drama film, had hit the screens last year. The makers have now announced the second installment to the Satyameva Jayate franchise. John, who played a vigilante who goes on a corrupt cop-killing spree in the original, said: “I genuinely enjoyed the story and telling of the original film. I could tell it was a story that the audience will find engaging.” “With SMJ2, the aim, once again, is to entertain the audience with a story that’s relevant in today’s times,” he further added. He is pairing up with Divya Khosla Kumar for the film.
Bijnore: A TikTok user has emerged as the prime suspect in three shocking murders that have taken place over the past five days in Uttar Pradesh’s Bijnore district. Thirty-year-old Ashwini Kumar is a drug addict, who uses the alias of Johnny Dada and uploads TikTok videos of himself posing as a ‘villain’. He also posts violent Facebook messages like ‘I will destroy everything’, ‘Devil is ready now’ and ‘See my havoc’. However, he has no criminal record and was known to be a harmless man, until he shot a local BJP leader’s 25-year-old son and his nephew, 26, following a dispute on September 27 in Barhapur area in Bijnore. After the cold-blooded murders, he fled the busy market waving a pistol. Also Read – Personal life needs to be respected: Cong on reports of Rahul’s visit abroad Three days later, Ashwini barged into the house of 27-year-old Nitika Sharma firing indiscriminately at her and fled from there. Nikita was a local girl, who used to work with a hotel in Dubai and had come home for her wedding in Bijnor. She was to marry a sub-inspector posted with CISF in Chennai on December 2. However, she died a day after she was shot. According to Nitika’s family, Ashwini had made advances at her in 2002, when he used to frequent her uncle’s place in Daulatabad and was spurned by her. She later got a job in Dubai and settled there. The episode was forgotten, or so they thought. Also Read – Firms staying closed 10 days a month due to recession, govt doing nothing: Priyanka Gandhi “It is likely that Ashwini was upset with the news of her wedding and wanted to settle scores,” a police official said. However, police are yet to establish motive in the other two murders he committed four days earlier. Ashwini, a graduate, comes from a humble background in Barhapur town of Bijnore. His father was a clerk in a sugarcane cooperative society in Dhampur tehsil and his elder brother works in a private company in Dehradun. According to the family, Ashwini also used to work with a private firm in Delhi, but abruptly gave it up. His family believes that his drug addiction affected his mental health. Meanwhile, additional security forces have been deployed in Bijnore and a reward of Rs 25,000 has been announced for anyone providing any information about his whereabouts. Bijnore Superintendent of Police Sanjeev Tyagi said, “We have formed eight teams and a combing operation is underway to trace him. Posters announcing the bounty and carrying his pictures and personal details of Ashwini have also been put up at various locations. Locals are being requested to alert the police about his whereabouts.”
Mumbai: One coach of a Mumbai local train derailed on Wednesday morning after one of its wheels came loose. Railway officials said while no injuries were reported, services on the line had to be suspended.According to officials, the wheel of a Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus-Bandra local came off between Mahim and King’s Circle stations around 11:30 am. As a result, services on the stretch had to be suspended. Trains, however, were running normally on the CSMT-Panvel leg of the line. According to officials, a Senior Administrative Grade (SAG) level enquiry has been constituted by the GM of Western Railway to look into the incident. (With inputs from Indian Express)